Using a simple deck of cards I made with numbers 1 - 12 (4 of each), I played great math games with four of the grandchildren this morning...all at their own level.
Diana, age 2.5 - Numeral Recognition
Here Diana is matching the number cards. I set out one of each (1-5). We name them as she matches them. For some reason she remembers 3, 4 and 5 as well as some of the higher numbers, but still has trouble with 1 and 2. So we are working on a small group of numbers.
Douglas is playing with Diana while I work with one of his brothers. Here he having her say the numbers as he flips the cards. While "flash-card drill" like this can become very boring, when it is mixed in with other games, the children never mind it.
Wesley, nearing age 5 (Dec.) - After & Before
Wesley is learning to add and subtract one. Here he is playing a game with Grandma. He flips the card and then we both try to be the first to say the number that comes NEXT (thus adding one). You notice that he is looking at the card before he lays it down so I can see it. I have no problem with this as he is just learning this skill. When he can do it quite well, I will have him place the card quicker so we can both see it at the same time. Even then, I will pause to let him have a little time. I want him to win about half the time. (NOTE: the children know when I am doing this. I tell them as they get faster, I will allow less of a pause. They know that they are doing really well when I no longer pause but try to do it as quickly as I can.)
Douglas, age 8, doing Squares
Douglas knows his multiplication tables quite well. He was just introduced to square and square root in his math. So this game gives him drill using the new terms he is learning.
Douglas flips the cards and we both attempt to be the quickest to say the square of the number showing.
Charles, age 6.5 is learning multiplication
We are playing X2. We flip the card and try to be the first to say the product of multiplying the number on the card times two. I pause and count silently to 3 to give him a chance. This timing allows him to be first about half the time. As he increases his speed, I will lessen how the time I pause.
Here he is practicing, by going through the deck once while I listen to make sure he gives a correct response.
We use this same deck of cards to play LOTS of math card games.
I wrote an article on Cards for Math that you can read. There are several more games that you can play using these same decks.